We Assessed the Accuracy of Wireless Coverage Maps per Carrier, and the Results Disappoint

It’s been a dozen years since Verizon’s catchphrase “Can you hear me now?” became a commonplace precept for any mobile phone user having problems with a cellular connection. Since then, there has been a tremendous amount of industry activity regarding partnerships, mergers, acquisitions and dissolutions amongst wireless service providers. Today, there are four major players in the U.S.; sometimes known as the “Big Four,” Verizon, AT&T, Sprint and T-Mobile are the survivors who have staked claims to national airwaves and their respective licensed markets of POPs. Both Verizon and AT&T currently boast “nationwide national coverage” while Sprint and T-Mobile are standing at about half-mast. Even, so according to the FCC’s end of year report on the state of wireless, the industry is as competitive as it’s ever been.

Since competition for subscribers remains at the forefront of Big 4 marketing strategies, and “anytime, anywhere” fast and reliable coverage is a benefit to many people, the major carriers publish network coverage maps on their websites, in an effort to persuade customers to churn their way. Recently, it’s become a matter of growing concern for some politicians who have taken the issue of accurate network coverage on as a rallying cry. Sen. Charles Schumer, D-NY, asked the FCC to investigate whether network providers are fairly and accurately advertising wireless coverage in their online coverage map tools.

According to a study conducted by RootMetrics, Hudson Valley, NY ranks 125th out of 125 metropolitan areas for good coverage and capacity on the BIG 4 wireless networks. Now, it is important to acknowledge that many factors are contributing to strong wireless coverage and network capacity in a metropolitan area, some of which are completely outside of the WSP’s purview. For example, one factor is the willingness of local municipalities to allow wireless infrastructure, such as new tower builds. Under the Telecommunications Act of 1996, local municipalities could no longer prohibit the provision of wireless service. However, they sure can make it difficult.   And in Hudson Valley, NY, zoning regulations do exactly that. Thus, it may not be AT&T, Sprint, T-Mobile or Verizon’s fault that coverage is poor in the Hudson Valley area.   It isn’t for a lack of trying, as they get turned down in zoning hearings for new towers and wireless infrastructure on a regular basis. However, that doesn’t excuse them from inaccurately depicting strong coverage on their website coverage maps for that area.

Here at Steel in the Air, Inc., we review coverage maps for each of the wireless carriers on a daily basis, while acting as a cell tower lease expert that advises landowners of the fair-market value of leases. Part of our assessments involve a location metric, which enables us to determine the relative value of a particular location for each of the Big Four carriers, in consideration of their current operational infrastructure. Each year, my staff and I review thousands of locations and visit each wireless provider’s coverage map website for each newly proposed cell site location. Coverage maps are generated by either the marketing department or the radio frequency department, and are intended to fulfill specific purposes.   In my opinion, both AT&T and Verizon have antiquated website coverage mapping tools that simply show equal coverage across large areas. While both AT&T and Verizon do have better coverage empirically (RootMetrics ranks them #1 and #2 across the United States), their coverage maps are simple marketing tools intended to convince viewers that coverage and capacity exists ubiquitously across a large area.   Sprint and T-Mobile have more realistic coverage maps that show actual gradients in quality of coverage and more closely represent realistic conditions.

To illustrate, please see the image pair below. On the left is an image of Verizon’s coverage map depicting coverage strength in a given area. On the right is a coverage map that Verizon’s radio frequency department generated to support their efforts to get a new tower approved at the circled in the middle of the map.   In order to get zoning approval to build a new tower, Verizon must demonstrate that its coverage is currently sub-par at that location.   The blue areas represent strong coverage while the yellow areas represent weak to none.   Again, the red map is what Verizon has published on its website illustrating the exact saverizoncoverageme area; and here it shows red (strong coverage) across the entire area. Is Verizon’s online coverage map wrong or is the map to the right understated simply to fool the zoning board into agreeing to a new tower build? In reality, both are correct.   Verizon, just like other wireless carriers shows coverage on their website to market how strong it is but understates it when required to prove the need for a new tower.  In other words, Verizon (and other wireless carriers) can generate coverage maps to show whatever they want to show.

T-Mobile should be given some credit for attempting to provide more actionable information with their coverage maps.   In early 2015, T-Mobile’s coverage map was updated. The result was similar to AT&T and Verizon’s coverage map tools whereby most coverageareas of the country were shown with excellent coverage.   However, at some point in November of 2015, T-Mobile revised what their coverage maps showed to present more realistic results. Below is a pair of images that illustrate coverage over the same area as shown on T-Mobile’s website on two different dates. The first, taken from June 18th of last year, shows nearly complete strong coverage over the entire area.   The second taken from November 15th of last year shows a different picture with pockets of strong coverage and some areas of weaker coverage. The latter map is much more representative of what T-Mobile’s coverage actually is, not what the marketing department wants to show it as.   It appears that T-Mobile rightfully determined that they were overstating actual coverage and revised their map to more accurately show real coverage.

Coverage Map Accuracy

So you might ask “how would you rate the accuracy of the coverage maps by the Big 4 wireless carriers in terms of accuracy of actual coverage?” Here are our independent ratings of the quality of the coverage maps.   It might be helpful to the reader to know that we maintain one of the best, if not the best, database of cell tower location data and lease rate data in the country.   When we review the coverage maps, we also have the benefit of knowing where the towers are in the same area and, in many cases, which wireless carriers are located on which towers. We also know when there are no towers in an area where the wireless carrier may be stating (or exaggerating) that they have coverage.   Below are our coverage map ratings based upon accuracy (the probability that the stated coverage accurately shows the actual coverage); ease of use (how easy is it to find the coverage map and use it); underlying map detail (how complete is the underlying road and map features; Ability to Select Device (does the website allow you to choose the device to see whether it has better/worse coverage); and Verified Coverage (does the map show you actual use that has been submitted by the phones using the network.)

  Accuracy Ease of Use Underlying Map Ability to Select Device Verified Coverage
T-Mobile 9 9 Detailed Yes Yes
Sprint 8 6 Detailed Yes No
Verizon 6 8 Simple No No
AT&T 6 7 Simple No No

t is important to note that good coverage doesn’t always mean good performance, nor does it mean a fast data connection. Furthermore, the maps typically show what coverage is like outdoors, not indoors. Thus, even with accurate maps, your cellular and data performance may suffer when you go indoors.   Lastly, in terms of total actual coverage across the US, Verizon and AT&T simply have more complete and extensive coverage.   So if you travel a significant amount, especially in smaller towns or rural areas, go with Verizon or AT&T for reliable coverage.   However, if you pretty much work in one place and live in another, the accuracy of site-specific coverage maps is more important.

It is also important that while the maps may show strong vs. weak coverage, none of the maps show the amount of capacity that the network has at a given location.   Accordingly, while there may be excellent coverage at a location, if there are too many people using the network simultaneously (think AT&T’s network in NYC after the first iPhone came out) the data speeds will drop and connectivity will become more problematic. In other words, at this point in time, none of the maps accurately show network capacity, although areas with 4G LTE coverage will be more likely to handle greater capacity.

So what can the average wireless consumer take from this?

  1. Wireless carrier coverage maps should only be used as a starting place. Do not decide which carrier to subscribe to based solely on coverage maps.
  2. Test your phone in your office and home before committing to a long-term agreement. Each of the WSPs allows a specific amount of time to return the phone after the date of purchase and cancel the service (usually 30 days). Ask your carrier about this prior to committing.
  3. Consumer Reports, RootMetrics, and PC Magazine have conducted independent studies on each of the Big 4 using empirical data to determine the quality and speed of service. Ranked results often show carrier performance by city and/ or geographical location.
  4. There are multiple sources that purport to provide crowd-gathered wireless coverage maps. These include www.opensignal.com and www.sensorly.com.   While these maps can be helpful in confirming strong coverage, the lack of strong coverage could simply mean that the website didn’t receive adequate data to determine strong coverage.   Thus, false negatives may apply. Feel free to let us know if you have any comments or comments!

 

Comments

  1. Michael Carlyle says

    Incorrect about Sprint. You can in fact choose the device for which to see coverage. I was interested in this article but now I doubt its trustworthiness. 🙁

  2. admin says

    You are correct- we will modify our post to include this. As an FYI, I did test the website and the various devices. In a spot check of 10 devices, selecting them did not change the map at all.

  3. Christian says

    Most of Sprints devices fully support all three LTE bands and should show little to no difference in coverage. Their older devices will support the B25 LTE network and is the main part of Sprints LTE network.

    T Mobile still has a lot of devices that don’t support their longer range B12 LTE network and you will more likely see wider range in their LTE coverage.

  4. says

    The Verizon map is a representation of general coverage not strength as your article states incorrectly. Red=expected coverage. In addition, you represent people wanting to rent/sell land to cell companies, so you can’t be uninfluenced by the money associated with this. So you cannot be unbiased, and notingly, you ranked #2 @ #1 cell companies last. Hope you don’t get sued.

  5. admin says

    Nonetheless, we don’t believe that the Verizon map is accurate even for general coverage. Secondly, we don’t represent any landowners wanting to rent/sell land to cell companies- only those that have already been approached. Our clients already have leases before they come to us- so we aren’t influenced by money associated with coverage maps at all.

  6. Isaac Hough says

    I just bought a new cellphone and my service is bad, I live in S.C.zipcode 29461. I live between Gooes Creek S.C.& Moncks Corner S.C.on Cypress Gardens road,Pimlico Plantation Subdivision.We do not have a cell tower out here,we need one or I’ll have to go back to my old carrier. I have great service while in towns that have towers. Please look into getting a cell tower out here. I have friends out here that also complain about their service with AT&T. We need a cell tower in our area and soon,please !

  7. Brian says

    I find it interesting that if you call to report coverage issues to at least 2 of these entities, they will constantly shift any blame of coverage problems away from them. After significant time spent rebutting there displacement they will generally admit they have limited coverage. Recently, one of those entities, after much discussion (many calls) they indicated I am in a limited coverage area even thought their customer accessible map shows different.
    In my experience in my home/work area, I agree that for 2 of these major carriers, their map is inaccurate. Many may even consider it fraudulent.

  8. Robert Boyce says

    I live at 18 little island road Orrs island Maine in the town of harpswell. There is absolutely no cell phone coverage at this location but all cell phone companies say there is coverage. All my neighbors have atnt micro-cell hooked to there internet to use cell phones. Don’t understand how all maps show coverage but there is none.

  9. says

    The maps just aren’t that accurate. Furthermore, they tend to show outdoor coverage- not indoor coverage which will always be lower than outdoor.

  10. John says

    I am sick and tired of these companies stating that 97% of all americans are covered………. How about covering 97% of America instead!!!! With my luck, I would be stuck in the 3% not covered. 

  11. says

    The FCC regularly studies the question of how much of the US land area is covered. One of the claimed initiatives this year by the Trump administration is improving broadband coverage in rural areas. Also, the FirstNet buildout by AT&T will provide additional rural coverage over the next 5 years. Not that any of this helps you in the short term.

  12. Dave says

    Ask my friend about Tmo. Where I live in Wisconsin their map shows complete coverage. When a friend who has Tmo visits from Chicago his coverage is nowhere to be found. Vzn and AT&T still have the best overall coverage, followed by Sprint. Tmo is still dead last in coverage area.

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